Sunday, July 23, 2017

24/07/2017: Scotland unites at Aqua Nor

Ten Scottish companies are now preparing for their participation at the first Scottish pavilion at Aqua Nor – and they are excited to showcase both the strength and ambition of the Scottish aquaculture supply chain, as well as the academic expertise in aquaculture

The Scottish pavilion is jointly hosted by Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE) and Scottish Development International (SDI), placed in hall A-006. The ten Scottish companies that will be joining them on the pavilion are:

- Gael Force Marine Equipment Ltd – marine equipment supplier
- AquaMoor Ltd – mooring technology
- Aqualife – fish vaccine delivery
- Fusion Marine Ltd – fish cages
- Tritech International Ltd – underwater imaging equipment
- Trimara Services – net cleaning equipment and service
- Institute of Aquaculture – research and consultancy
- Thistle Marine (Peterhead) Ltd – crane supply, load testing and repair
- OTAQ – acoustic seal deterrent
- Bioemitters – biodynamic parasite control equipment

Currently two companies, Gael Force and Aqua Moor, are planning new product launches during Aqua Nor. Artist impression of the Scottish pavilion. 

Image credit: Dave Conner on Flickr
Knowledge based industry
The chance to meet a global audience has been a key factor when the group decided to participate at Aqua Nor 2017. Scotland’s expertise in aquaculture stems from their science- and facts-based approach to fish health and production. No other country worldwide can boast a higher number of world-class universities per head of population – and the graduates and science departments of the universities have been a key resource for Scottish companies.

Scottish innovation

Strong networks of industry and academic expertise create a collaborative environment that produces results. Joint projects include a trial to test the commercial viability of a mussel hatchery in Scotland and a project to increase the sustainable supply of cleaner-fish for use in sea lice control. “There is an innovative nature to the aquaculture industry. And the companies that are coming to Aqua Nor thrive in this environment – taking advantage of all our expertise in life sciences, fish health, biosciences – and of course technology and engineering. The Scottish aquaculture industry is well regulated and renowned for its high standards”, says Dr Andrea McColl, Senior Development Manager Life Sciences at HIE.

Aquaculture important for employment

The aquaculture industry is important for Scotland, in particular for the Highlands and Islands, providing valuable employment in the coastal areas. The Scottish aquaculture industry and the Scottish Government share the ambition to see it double by 2030.

Positioned for growth
The companies attending Aqua Nor are all looking for international growth. “The technology, knowledge, products and services we bring with us have been used successfully along the Scottish coast line – and we believe our expertise and experience is a valuable addition to the global industry”, says Dr McColl.

High expectations
This is the first time attending Aqua Nor for McColl and several of her travel companions. “We expect a high number of visitors at our stand and look forward to showing them what we have to offer. We regard Aqua Nor as the most important aquaculture exhibition, so our expectations are high”, Dr McColl adds. The Scottish Pavilion will host a networking reception, making it easy to connect with the Scottish industry representatives and learn more about their products and services.

Visit the Aqua Nor website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

24/07/2017: Zinpro Corporation names Dr Mihai Sun as aquaculture nutritionist

Zinpro Corporation announces that Mihai Sun, Ph.D., has joined the company as aquaculture nutritionist

Mihai Sun, Ph.D.
Image credit: Zinpro
 In this position, he provides technical support and research expertise for the company’s aquaculture customers across the globe. In addition, he develops and implements research protocols, as part of the Zinpro Corporation Research and Nutritional Services (RNS) team, to identify current and future needs for trace mineral nutrition in aquaculture production and provides solutions for customers.

“Mihai brings a wealth of knowledge and experience to provide our global aquaculture customers with research and technical support specific to this industry,” says Terry Ward, Ph.D., RNS global director, Zinpro Corporation.

“We are excited to have Mihai on our team to further help our customers to improve performance and wellness of their aquaculture species and to answer their questions about optimal nutrition for aquaculture production.”

Dr Sun has authored or co-authored a variety of peer-reviewed research articles related to aquaculture nutrition and is currently an animal nutrition reviewer for the North American Journal of Aquaculture.

He earned his doctorate in animal nutrition from the University of Missouri-Columbia, his master’s degree in fish nutrition from Pukyong National University in Busan, South Korea, and his bachelor’s degree in aquaculture from Dalian Ocean University in Dalian, China.

In addition to his research and academic pursuits, Dr Sun has spent more than a decade working in the aquaculture industry, most recently serving as an aquaculture nutritionist for a North American feed manufacturer with a focus on specialty and aquatic feeds. He has also worked as an aquafeed technical manager for a feed company in Shanghai, China.

As an industry leader in trace mineral nutrition for livestock and poultry, Zinpro is committed to delivering the technical expertise, products and educational tools needed to help customers improve the performance and profitability of their operations.

Visit the Zipro website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

24/07/2017: The benefits of abrasion and UV resistance nets

by Elihai Radzinski, Director, Fibras Industriales S.A.

Fibras Industriales S.A., commercially known as FISA has been around for over 70 years

Until the late 90s, the company focused mostly on the South American market with some sales to central and North America. The main reason for this was that until the millennium, Peru would fish around nine million tonnes per year and with Chile fishing an additional four million tonnes, the two countries alone represented around 15 percent of world fishing in terms of volume. 

Image credit: FISA
As FISA had around 40 percent market share of those two countries together with some additional sales to Ecuador, Mexico and North America, the company had a market share above eight percent of world netting requirements and much higher for ocean fishing considering that until recently FISA only dealt with multifilament netting and not the monofilament introduced over the past five years.

As always, times change and markets change, therefore over the past 20 years FISA has dedicated more and more resources for growth in the aquaculture industry on a global scale. The first stage was to divert existing knotless Raschel machines towards production for the Chile Salmon aquaculture market.

As this market grew with extreme speed, it was within no time that FISA was obliged to invest in new machinery for this netting and with this extra capacity new markets were entered like the lake farmed tilapia in Honduras and Mexico and during the first years of the century, FISA started supplying rigged cages and bulk netting to European customers with tougher weather conditions such as The Canary Islands and Greece.

Each time the company entered new markets, we learnt together with our customers the specific requirements for each market and developed new products that better suit each requirement. The biggest advantage FISA has over other netting manufacturers is that we have a complete range of products and not just Raschel Knotless netting. This means we can always innovate and adapt to each markets specific requirements.

FISA Polymax ropes

In The Canary Islands, there are very strong currents that cause the vertical ropes of the cages to rub with the structural cage. This leads to friction and abrasion of the rope. Apart from adding plastic hoses to the first 1.5 meters of the rope, we proposed to our customer the use of Polymax ropes instead of polypropylene or Polysteel.

For those of you not familiar with the difference between these products, Polysteel is basically a mix of polyethylene and polypropylene (mixed at extrusion stage, not production of rope stage) thus giving the product the benefits of both materials. In the case of Polymax the rope is composed of Polyethylene and Polyester a combination that highlights flexibility and high abrasion resistance. What we have done is taken a polyethylene rope and wrapped it in multifilament Polyester.

This product is slightly more expensive but its benefits in abrasion resistance and at the same time UV resistance (thus delaying the downgrading of the rope) greatly outweigh the extra costs that can add up to a couple of hundred US dollars per cage. Polyester has a higher density than the monofilament polysteel or polyethylene thus could increase the weight of the cage in an unnecessary manner.

That is the main reason we have not proposed polyester ropes but we definitely don’t discard that option for customers willing to try it although it would be more recommendable to use the FISA polytar rope.

FISA Polytar ropes

An additional product we recommend for harsh conditions is the Polytar rope that is made of high tenacity polyester but at the same time coated with a tar solution developed by FISA that will work as a lubricant during manoeuvring specially with the stretching of the rope in open sea conditions.

It is important to mention that we don’t simply tar the ropes but rather the actual twines that compose the ropes so it is not just a top layer of protective tar but also actually a rope produced with tar inside. This protective coating also gives added protection against the UV rays.

Read the full article, HERE.

Visit the FISA website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Biomin company profile

BIOMIN are dedicated to finding innovative, trend-setting solutions that empower their customers to master existing and future challenges in animal nutrition– the natural way. The application of their scientific know-how and expertise, based on an in-depth understanding of their customer’s needs and concerns, enables them to deliver solutions that support animal health, optimise performance and production efficiency.

Research and development is one of the cornerstones of BIOMIN. Their strong in-house research and development, and global cooperation with leading institutions and organisations form the basis by which innovative solutions are developed for their customers.

Through joint projects with renowned universities and research institutes, BIOMIN is constantly in touch with the latest scientific know-how, from which novel feed additives are developed and produced. Their global network of collaborating institutions has grown to over 100.

One of the cornerstones of BIOMIN’s success is the ongoing improvement of their inhouse quality standards. In 1997, BIOMIN introduced the international ISO 9001 standard. The HACCP system, introduced subsequently at BIOMIN’s production sites, provides the quality assurance our customers seek from them. In addition, the feed quality standards QS and GMP+ guarantee the utmost degree of control and quality for their products – from raw material inputs right through to the final product.

Concerns over climate change and the role of greenhouse gases continue to rise. In September 2011, BIOMIN was internationally recognised through the award of ISO 14040 ‘Life Cycle Assessment’ certification. By optimising feed use and improving animal performance, it is possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock operations.
Through innovative production technologies and advanced, scientific know-how, BIOMIN has pioneered several trend-setting solutions for a range of animal nutrition products, all of which utilise fully natural processes and ingredients.

An in-depth understanding of what the customer’s needs and concerns are has enabled BIOMIN to create and deliver solutions in-line with performance and efficiency goals.

Visit the BIOMIN website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Thursday, July 20, 2017

21/07/2017: Yanmar announces the latest innovations to be shown at Aqua Nor 2017, Norway

Yanmar will be attending Aqua Nor from 15th – 18th August, 2017 in Trondheim, Norway

They will be at several locations, with Yanmar Norge on stand A1-058, and the net cleaning robot distributor ØSTERBØ MASKIN AS on stand A-021

Yanmar Norge will be presenting the ever-popular 6AYM, 6HYM, 6CXBM and the 6LY440, a light duty commercial engine.

Image credit: Gunvor Røkke on Flickr

Morten-Erik Haugen, Sales Manager Commercial High Speed Diesel Engines for Yanmar Norge AS says, “This event offers a great opportunity for potential customers to get up close to the engines and talk directly to the makers. Also for questions and inquiries for the Yanmar Medium speed engines you are welcome at our booth. We’ll also be giving a free snow blower to everyone who makes a purchase on the stand, an idea which has proved extremely popular at the other shows we’ve attended this year.”

Meanwhile at the Martec B-100 Skansen/Marina stand visitors can inspect the NorCraft 1066 SpeedMax fishing vessel, and even take it for a spin. The 10.66M machine features a Yanmar 6CXBM-GT rated at 509hp.

Mr Haugen explains, “We are particularly excited about this vessel because next to our engines it is also the public launch of the Martec Joystick DP which our dealer Martec AS has installed. It’s great that potential customers can actually pilot it around in the water to get a feel for what we have to offer.”

Also in the marina will be a servicing and personnel boat, the SereCraft S8. Designed for fish farmers, this 7.9M vessel boasts a 370hp Yanmar 6LY2A-UTP engine coupled to a sturdy Yanmar KMH61A gearbox. Net gain Ruben Antvelink, Area Manager, YEU will be the contact person at the show for all matters relating to the remote net cleaner.

“This is another highlight for us,” notes Mr Antvelink. “This robot can make a massive difference in fish farm hygiene allowing stocks to thrive and offer the farmer better yields. We’re really looking forward to meeting customers old and new.”

To better demonstrate the system’s capabilities, the company is introducing a 3D model of an appropriately kitted out vessel, a 13M NorCraft 1300 WCAT fitted with 2 Yanmar 6CH-WUTE engines rated at 255hp. The net cleaner can be seen close up at the ØSTERBØ stand, so fish farmers can really scrutinise the latest design and work out the benefits for themselves.

Mr Antvelink adds, “Cleanliness at fish farms is more important than ever now. This machine offers a cost-effective and reliable way of achieving this. Only one operator is needed and it works as much as four times faster than conventional models.”

Visit the Yanmar website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

21/07/2017: China International Food & Feed Processing Industry Exhibition (CICFO)

The China International Food & Feed Processing Industry Exhibition (CICFO) takes an international perspective of food and feed processing, aiming to provide comprehensive solutions
Since its establishment in 2013, the scale of the show, and the scope of its display has grown rapidly alongside a myriad of professional visitors. This year it will present a wide range of food and feed manufacturing equipment, and facilitate technical exchanges and trade development.

CICFO 2017 will be held at the Beijing International Exhibition Centre from September 11th to 13th, 2017.

The exhibition area will exceed 30,000 square meters, of which 27,000 square meters will be displayed in the exhibition area. This enormous area will be populated by more than 450 exhibitors, of which the almost one third are of international background, and more than 28,000 attendees.


At CICFO 2017, Build My Flour mill 2017 will be presented for the first time alongside the second iteration of its sister event, Build My Feed Mill. Each conference will use a programme that arranges speakers into a coherent order following the flowchart progress of a flour or feed mill. In this way, these unique conferences allow for a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of food and feed milling machinery, as well as the industries themselves.

With a packed speaker list for the first ever Build My Flour Mill conference, corporate partners have flocked to this one day conference with enthusiasm. Our partners include high profile companies each producing more than 3,000 tonnes of flour per day.
They include:

• Wudeli Group;
• Yihaikerry Group;
• Lamsoon Group;
• Hengfeng Group;
• Bei Da Huang Group;
• Luwang Group;
• Fengzheng; and,
• Zhongyu.

Here are also some highlights of the high profile speakers featured at our event:

- Innovations in Grain Preparation for Milling
Roger Cook, Senior Technical Specialist
PETKUS Technology GmbH

- Use of Advanced Enzyme Technology in Optimisation of Flour Milling Extraction
Marco Choi, Factory Director
Lam Soon Group

- Grain Dust Explosion and Dust Explosion Suppression
Prof Zhou Nairu
Henan University of Technology

- Thinking about the transformation of flour milling technology in the new situation
Professor Wen Jiping
Henan University of Technology 河南工业大学

- Trends in the Development of China 's Flour Industry and How to Encourage New Strategies
Dan Zhimin, Chairman of the Board
Wudeli Group

After great success of the first Build My Feed Mill conference this year in Bangkok, it has been extended to include a full day of speakers. Join us for an event sponsored by a myriad of companies, including:
• Cargill – 33 feed mills in China; Puruina - 17 feed mills in China; Tongwei - 130 feed mills in Asia; Puai Group - 6 feed mills in China; DBN - 53 feed mills in Asia.
• Contifeed - 40 feed mills in China; CP Group; ADM; Haid Group - 60 feed mills in China; Twins Group - 60 feed mills in China; New hope agri - 50 feed mills in China.
• Evergreen Conglomerate; Well hope Group - 19 feed mills in China; Trs Group - 40 feed mills in China; Zhengbang Group - 20 feed mills in China; TQLS Group - 51 feed mills in China.

Here are also some highlights of the high profile speakers featured at our event:

Analysis of Maize Deep Processing Industry
Wei Xuming, Secretary General
China Starch Industry Association

The role of silver in the precise management of feed production
Sunny Shang, FSQR Lead

Visit the event website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

21/07/2017: RAS: An alternative way forward for salmon production

by Ben Green MA (Cantab), CEO The Supreme Salmon Co, UK

After 44 years of growing Salmonids in general, and 28 years of rearing salmon in RAS systems in particular, I would hope to have gained some wisdom but I have certainly discovered a lot of my own foolhardiness

Image credit: The Supreme Salmon Co
Fish farming is a very unforgiving business and it peers into the depths of one’s soul at times but who wants a boring life in an office when there are so many exciting challenges to be had in RAS? I luckily grew some RAS large salmon in the early 1990s and then spent the next 20 years finding the best way of doing it on purpose; and there’s still plenty of system design upgrades to do.

I’ve been working away in isolation on a course of parallel evolution and my RAS systems are very different from the systems being sold by other companies but they work well and are profitable enough to supply me with a reasonable living. In this article I will lay out a blueprint of how a successful salmon RAS project can be implemented.

It’s not very exciting, it won’t be making millions of dollars from thousands of tonnes of production but it won’t be a spectacular loss of money either. The salmon farming industry started in a small way 50 years ago using tiny hatcheries and wooden sea cages, a lot of the knowledge we have now was gained in those early days. This has to be the same with RAS; if it can’t be made to work on a small scale with a pilot unit then it’s a big gamble to hope the economies of scale will make a project viable.

Laying the Groundwork

There have been many words printed on the successful implementation of entrepreneurial projects so I won’t study them here but there are some points that apply specifically to this kind of project. Choose the right species. I’ve concentrated on Salmonids. Why? Mostly because I’m fascinated by them! Staff have to be motivated to care for the stock but salmon also have a high value and a large existing market.

It doesn’t make sense to grow a warm water species when the temperature can drop to -10C outside, because that’s massive built-in vulnerability for a start. My farms have been located not far from London.

This was a disadvantage when I was selling salmon fry to customers in Scotland 500 miles away, but a massive advantage when I can get fish to the London Billingsgate fish market within hours of harvesting them. One of the advantages of RAS is its small environmental footprint so why locate hundreds or even thousands of miles from your customers?

Finance is a big subject; the initial cost can be reduced to a fraction if care is taken. I can expand with capital derived from existing profits but only because I do all the construction myself. The farms I supply for clients are in kit form; they supply the infrastructure and construct the tanks etc. themselves, cutting out the expense of outside contractors.

That way the operators also have an intimate knowledge of how their equipment functions and it’s ‘theirs’. Large companies usually have an underused site somewhere and underemployed labour at certain times of the year. New entrants can get a bargain by finding a site where a badly conceived project has gone bust! The money invested in a project has to be recovered from profits, the penny pinching has to start right at the beginning, large grants and generous investors lead to a profligate mind-set. Start modestly and expand prudently in a new and largely untested field of endeavour. Be adaptable to the local planning laws.

Here in England, any farming enterprise is allowed to take 20cu m of water from an aquifer per day without a license and erect a 400sq m building without planning. That’s enough for a 50 tonne salmon RAS unit, so maybe a series of small units is a better way to go. A geographical spread may help with the local marketing too.

Read the full article, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Nutriad company profile

The Nutriad story
The global population increases 50 percent in the next four decades.  Livestock production and aquaculture has never been more challenging.  Limited availability and changing quality of raw materials challenges intake, growth and performance.

Growing customer awareness and governmental regulations, especially related to health and safety, challenge your business. As manufacturer of state-of-the-art feed additives for more than 50 years they know the agricultural market. Still every day they are passionate about theirwork.

Their ambition is to be their customers’ first choice in palatability, mycotoxin management and digestive performance. Every day their people work on finding ways to improve your production.

Being active in more than 80 countries, they understand the global issues thoroughly. The experience of their dedicated local product specialists is available for you. In direct contact with you, Nutriad create the best practical solutions for today and tomorrow.

Nutriad's people
At Nutriad they believe that their people are our most valuable assets. People whose passion and personal values drive the company’s performance all over the world. Meet some of their team members that help shape Nutriad across the world.

Visit the company website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

20/07/2017: Innovation never sleeps: The power of C-Dome technology

by Nina Hanssen, Commercial Director of Aqua Farming Solutions B.V., a subsidiary of H2O Technics B.V., The Netherlands

As the key industry that needs to ensure the ever-growing world population will have sufficient food on the table in the future, the aquaculture industry has a huge burden upon its shoulders


Image credit: Aqua Farming Solutions B.V.

Fish consumption is growing rapidly, not only due to better availability, but also since consumers are becoming more and more aware of the health advantages of seafood. There is no reason to believe that this will change, but fish farmers all over the world are preparing effectively for the necessary adjustments.

Although parts of the industry might still have a long way to go before it is sustainable in the eyes of a fairly big part of the consumer market, there is no doubt that within the industry itself, there is a fast-growing awareness of the importance of sustainable and environmentally friendly farming, as well as increased efforts to meet the requirements of the consumers.

Today’s aquaculture industry is young, and it stands to reason that it still has a few issues that need better solutions, including the continuous problems caused by parasites which not only has an impact on wild fish like trout and salmon, it also disaffects public opinion towards farmed fish around the world.

A vast amount of money is being spent globally every year to continue to improve all aspects of aquaculture, and the will to find solutions to problems, is enormous, giving credit to the entire industry as a whole as the efforts and self-appointed targets are consequently raised. For example, new techniques and ideas are invented, developed and tested, and existing techniques improved where possible.

Finding one method which can solve all issues is the ultimate goal for everyone involved in aquaculture, and as the whole industry goes through a continuous development and is strong enough to face any new challenges, there is no doubt that aquaculture will sooner or later succeed in finding that one method. Indeed, we might be closer than we realise.

A new technology, a natural solution
The technologies of H2O Technics B.V. was developed by a team of Dutch inventors more than 12 years ago, and although it was based on an already known technology, the Dutch inventors were able to reinvent and customise the technology for various purposes related to water treatments.

Similar technology is used in several areas of everyday life; pregnancy ultrasound, echo sounding to determine depth of water, automatic door openers, processing of liquids and paper, cleaning of medical equipment; the list is endless. The C-Dome has been developed by Aqua Farming Solutions, for and together with the aquafarming industry, and it is equipped with four resonators mounted on the inside, three aiming sideways and one aiming straight down.

The C-Dome is preferably placed in, or close to the middle of, the fish cage and each resonator has a reach of approximately 50 meters in salt water. Together with the electronics box mounted on the frame, each resonator is able to create non-inertial Nano-cavitation: The microscopic vibrations caused by the resonators, change the potential energy stored within the mass of water into kinetic energy, creating microscopic voids in the water which implode due to the pressure changes, hereby creating microscopic water jets; Nano-cavitation.

Our Nano-cavitation is unique within water treatment, and as mentioned earlier, is the result of more than 12 years of reinventing the ultrasound technology. It has been in use for several years already in the Netherlands, and together with the multiple installations in fish cages in several countries, the technology has proven its worth.

The importance of keeping the nets used in the fish cages clean and free of algae, is probably something the average consumer hasn’t really thought of, but for the farmer, it is of utmost importance. Bio-fouling might not seem to be a big issue, but too much of it can lead to far bigger problems; the nets may become too heavy, followed by the risks of tearing which again may give the fish the opportunity to escape, with all the consequences that this entails.

The accumulation of fouling organisms on the nets may lead to hydroids settling down, in addition to being a perfect hiding place for various ectoparasites like sea lice and the amoeba Neoparamoeba perurans; the last one causing the amoebic gill disease in farmed fish. There are several ways of cleaning the nets, and pretty much all of them include handling the fish one way or the other, which by multiple treatments may have impact on the skin and the mucus layer.

High pressure and mechanical net cleaning may also lead to damages on the net itself, increasing the risk of escapes, as well as release of various organisms hiding in the fouling which may even expand the problem further with regards to parasites.

Read the full article, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Tyson company profile

Tyson Animal Nutrition Group is a leading producer of 100 percent chicken-based protein meals, chicken fats and wet pet ingredients.

Their experience, knowledge, commitment to quality and strong customer relationships have made them one of the most respected names in animal nutrition.

Tyson's vertically-integrated structure gives them control over all stages of the life cycle of their chickens, from hatching-egg production to distributing the finished product.

And because all of their raw materials come from USDA-inspected processing plants, their ingredients are consistent, traceable and to your specifications.

Their sales and support Team Members welcome the opportunity to partner with you and meet your needs for high-quality ingredients.

Learn more about our products or speak to one of our sales managers today.

Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

19/07/2017: Nutriad sponsors major aquaculture events in Asia

Multinational feed additives producer Nutriad continues to show its leadership role in the aquaculture industry as it announced its sponsorship of three major events in the coming months

- Asian Pacific Aquaculture (APA) 2017
- The Aquaculture Roundtable Series (TARS) 2017
- Diseases in Asian Aquaculture (DAA)

 With one mayor event, each month in the coming period, Nutriad is investing in showcasing its products and services across the Asian region. 

Oyster Ranch
Image credit: Michael Davis-Burchat
“Being close to our customers and interacting with leading experts in key aquaculture markets is part of our strategy as we are increasing our footprint in the industry. It promises to be a busy summer,” says Dr Peter Coutteau, Business Unit Director Aquaculture for Nutriad.

“Our sponsorships focus on supporting the aquaculture sector in general, and more specifically South East Asia, to help producers deal with the key challenge of reducing the impact of diseases and parasites on productivity.”

Asian Pacific Aquaculture (APA) 2017, the major aquaculture exhibition in South East Asia organised by the World Aquaculture Society, takes place Kuala Lumpur from 24th to 27th of July. Nutriad sponsors the scientific session entitled “Functional Feeds for Disease Prevention.”

At this session, chaired by Dr Peter Coutteau and Professor Dr Rossita Shapawisurely, speakers from the industry as well as the academic sector will treat some hot topics related to Health management and farm practices in Thailand, functional feed additives to prevent fish and shrimp diseases, effects of soybean meal on tissue cholesterol status and molting relative gene expression in white shrimp as well as effects of garlic against Aeromonas hydrophila in Nile Tilapia.

“We carefully selected the speakers and topics for this Nutriad sponsored session, allowing our partners and customers in APAC to learn about current market developments and new findings regarding health management,” stated Allen Wu, Regional Manager Aquaculture APAC and Board Director of World Aquaculture Society – Asian Pacific Chapter.

Nutriad will also organize a gala diner upon invitation. The Aquaculture Roundtable Series (TARS) 2017 is built around central them of Finfish Aquaculture: Strategies for Growth. This is the second time this series of roundtables, initiated in 2011, is focusing on the finfish aquaculture industry. The meetings will take place in Bali, Indonesia from August 16-17 will explore the growth potential of Asia’s finfish aquaculture industry.

Nutriad proudly has been sponsoring TARS since 2012. This year, the company sponsors Professor Dr Francisco E. Montero from the University of Valencia, Spain to speak on Parasites Prevention in Fish Farming.

“Parasite control is one of the key issues in health management of all commercial species of fish, including salmon, tilapia and marine fish. However, there is a general lack of basic knowledge on fish parasites in the aquaculture industry, particularly in Asia,” according to Dr Maria Mercè Isern Subich DVM, Nutriad’s Business Development Manager Aquaculture Health.

“Professor Montero, involved in research on fish parasitology since 2001, will share his views on the life cycle and mode of action of different species of fish parasites relevant for aquaculture, and illustrate current practices and challenges to prevent and/or treat parasites in fish farms in Europe.”

The 10th Diseases in Asian Aquaculture (DAA) conference will be organized by the Fish Health Section of the Asian Fisheries Society (FHS-AFS) in Bali, Indonesia from Aug 28 to Sept 1. FHS-AFS was founded in 1989 in Malaysia and made a tradition of this triennial scientific symposium to update members and aqua health professionals on topics related to aquatic animal health in Asian aquaculture.

DAA10 central theme will be “Enhancing Aquatic Health Research and Services through Public-Private Sector Partnerships” and anticipates the attendance of 500 delegates from 30-40 countries. Nutriad is a silver sponsor at DAA10 and Dr Maria Mercè Isern Subich DVM will give an overview of recent trial results obtained with Nutriad’s health program in lab and field trials during an oral presentation entitled “Functional feed additives as prevention of parasitic disease in fish”.

Nutriad delivers products and services to over 80 countries through a network of own sales offices and distributors. Supported by four application laboratories and five manufacturing facilities on three continents.

Visit the Nutriad website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

19/07/2017: Global aquaculture CEOs and the best aquaculture start-ups come together to talk innovation

CEOs from the world’s leading aquaculture companies will join with the most exciting novel technology companies in the industry to talk about innovation in farm management, nutrition and health this September in London

The opening of this inaugural conference will see twelve of the most exciting emerging companies in the aquaculture industry present their novel technologies to investors; all competing for new business partners from the audience and the prestigious Award for Innovation.

The main session is dedicated to innovation-focused presentations and panel discussions from influential industry members, including:
• The Need for and the Value of Innovation to the Aquaculture Industry: Jason Clay, World Wildlife Fund
• What lessons can Aqua learn from Traditional Animal Health Experience?: Alejandro Bernal, Zoetis
• The Investment View on Aquaculture and Advice for Start-Ups: Matthias Hofer, Stonehaven Consulting

Across the Animal Health Innovation portfolio 75 percent of the attendees are Director level and above; and of the 100-strong audience at Aquaculture Innovation Summit, over one third of these attendees will be made-up of emerging aquaculture companies.

Matthias Hofer, Senior Partner, Stonehaven Consulting said, “I’m really excited about the event. Aquaculture is a young industry if compared to farming land based animals. As an industry, it is still forming with challenges emerging more frequently. Innovation will help addressing these challenges and will help to advance the industry even further. This summit will be a great opportunity to see some of the industry’s most impressive emerging companies and to discuss new ways to drive progress in aquaculture.”

The Aquaculture Innovation Summit will take place from 28-29 September 2017 at the Millennium Gloucester Hotel in London, UK.
The lower Early Bird rate expires this Friday. Reduced rates are also available for emerging companies and include a pre-conference networking afternoon for business partnering. Conference pass fees will apply. 

Contact Jessica Parry at for inquiries.

Complete event information is available online, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

19/07/2017: Sustainable farming of lobsters: A dream soon to become a reality?

by Associate Professor Greg Smith, University of Tasmania, Director of the ARC Research Hub for Commercial Development of Rock Lobster Culture Systems at the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS)

Spiny lobsters, also known as rock lobsters in Australia and New Zealand, are one of the few high value marine species that are yet to be cultured in commercial hatcheries
The appeal of culturing spiny lobsters is due to favourable market attributes including the fresh product’s high value in the Asian market, increasing product demand and the static nature of current wild fishery.

Image credit: IMAS

Research into the biology of spiny lobsters is not new, with initial propagation studies undertaken in Japan in the 1800s. The larval phase of up to seven species was completed in Japanese laboratories between 1960 and 2000.

Spiny lobster propagation research has since been undertaken in a number of countries including Australia, New Zealand, Vietnam, India, America, Mexico and England. For the last two decades, larval propagation research has been focused in Australia and in recent years at the University of Tasmania’s Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS), in Hobart.

Australian lobster research has had long-term government support through the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), the Tasmanian Government, the Australian Research Council (ARC) and private equity.

The current research program at IMAS focuses on commercialisation of the hatchery technology supported by an ARC grant of US$5 million through the Industrial Transformation Research Program.

The ARC funding targets collaborative research between industry partners and Australia’s best researchers. The ARC Research Hub for Commercial Development of Spiny Lobster Culture Systems is a collaboration with the University of Tasmania, University of Auckland (New Zealand), University of the Sunshine Coast, and Australian industry partner Plastic Fabrications Group.

The research programme is supported by the Tasmanian Government through the Sustainable Marine Research Collaboration Agreement. While there have been challenges to overcome in the hatchery production of seed stock, the grow out sector has been established since the 1990s, primarily in Vietnam, with some recent activity in other countries in the region including Indonesia.

Despite the larval phase of many species of spiny lobster being completed in research laboratories, until recently, there has been a failure to translate the small-scale research success into commercial processes.

As a result of there being no hatchery production of spiny lobsters seed stock, aquaculture is based on the collection of wild seed stock. The larval cycle of spiny lobsters is protracted; typically females mate in inshore waters and carry a fertilised bundle of eggs externally attached under their tail.

While attached to the female the eggs develop for a period of between weeks and months, depending on the species, and then hatch as underdeveloped larvae (phyllosoma). To sustain a static population, spiny lobsters focus their reproductive energy in the investment of large numbers of offspring.

In the wild, each breeding female will hatch millions of phyllosoma, but with a long larval duration, small numbers survive to reach juvenile and later adult stages. Phyllosoma reside within the water column and are transported into the open ocean by currents and eddies, they have very limited swimming ability.

In offshore waters, and often at depth, the phyllosoma will undertake the complex larval development phase, including up to 24 individual moult events. The larval duration can be protracted and may last anywhere between months to years, dependent on a number of factors including the species, availability of feed and environmental conditions.

At the completion of the phyllosoma phase of development spiny lobsters undergo an extreme metamorphosis event, transforming from a two-dimensional clear disc shaped phyllosoma into a three-dimensional shaped puerulus.

This puerulus is a non-feeding nektonic stage; the primary purpose of this life-phase is to swim from the offshore waters to inshore reef systems or other suitable benthic habitats to settle upon. This migration from oceanic waters to reef habitats during the puerulus phase is often a distance of hundreds of kilometres.

When they have reached a suitable habitat puerulus will undergo a final larval moult transforming into the benthic juvenile phase and assume typical lobster morphology. Currently, aquaculture farmers will target both of these latter stages of development to enable the stocking of their sea cages.

Puerulus are caught at night in inshore bays using lights for attraction into fine mesh nets, or alternatively harvested from artificial settlement structures, such as bundles of mesh or used cement bags.

The juvenile development phase is also targeted using poles with small holes drilled in them set near the shoreline; this structure provides a habitat for juvenile lobsters to shelter in and thus a means of collection for farmers. The preferred culture species targeted in Vietnam is Panulirus ornatus, also known as the tropical, ornate or painted lobster, however obtaining this species from local waters can be difficult, with other less commercially desirable species also being collected and cultured.

There are a number of issues with the reliance on collection of seed stock from the wild, including sustainability, reliability of supply, biosecurity and the inability to obtain genetic improvement of cultured stocks.

The long and complex lifecycle of spiny lobsters has provided challenges for the establishment of a sustainable commercial aquaculture industry. The collaboration between expert scientists and industry in the ARC Research Hub for Commercial Development of Spiny Lobster Culture Systems has provided the platform for innovative research to bring the dream of sustainable farming of lobsters a step closer.

Read the full article, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Reed Mariculture company profile

Reed Mariculture is the world's largest producer of marine microalgae concentrates for larval fish, bivalves, crustaceans and other filter feeders.

Their Instant Algae® larviculture feeds are used by over 500 hatcheries, universities, and marine ornamental operations in more than 80 countries around the world.

They also produce and distribute pathogen and ciliate free rotifers,Parvocalanus copepods, and Otohime and TDO weaning feeds.

Reed Mariculture's Instant Algae products are closer to nature than any other feed on the market. They produce whole-cell, whole-food microalgae feeds and enrichments from marine algae using proprietary processes.

 products provide fish, bivalve and shrimp hatcheries with clean, convenient, long shelf-life feeds that are superior choices to replace or supplement live microalgae.

Their feeds ensure stable and rapidly-reproducing rotifer populations with superior rich nutritional value.

Visit the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

18/07/2017: Royal honour for aquaculture innovation, Norway

Karsten Glomset is well-known to all who have worked with oxygenation in aquaculture

Recently, he received the King’s Medal of Merit for his pioneering work. His employer through many years, AGA AS, is participating in the Aqua Nor seminar, ‘Modern aquaculture – more than salmon’, and their presentation is built on Mr Glomset’s pioneering work through 30 years. 

Karsten Glomset receives the King’s Medal of Merit
Image credit: AquaNor
A humble recipient of honour
AGA is a well-known and large gas company and among the market leaders in oxygenation in Norway and Northern Europe. The group is very pleased with Mr Glomset’s role in positioning the company in the aquaculture industry – but Mr Glomset returns the compliment, “I have no idea why just I am honoured with this medal. What we have done here is a team effort and an excellent example of cooperation across various divisions in the company,” he said in a recent interview.

The past is important to the future

Although both AGA and the rest of the industry has developed new technology continuously through the years, Mr Glomset’s contributions have been indispensable to all who have continued his work. He has patented several solutions, which have led to a situation where we can now raise robust salmon in healthy environments of growth.

Already in the 1980s Mr Glomset laid the foundation for oxygenation which made it possible to improve production of smolt in close tanks on land and maintain an oxygen-rich environment during operations that may be stressful to the fish. In a ceremony at AGA’s plant in Ålesund, Mr Glomset was honoured for his work with one of Norway’s highest honours, the King’s Medal of Merit.

AGA participates in a seminar at Aqua Nor
In the seminar «Modern aquaculture – more than salmon», which is organised by the Nor-Fishing Foundation and Innovation Norway, AGA will bring over 30 years of experience with oxygenation to the audience as a backdrop for modern innovation and the latest expertise. AGA’s presentation will focus on future sustainable oxygenation for the aquaculture industry.

Show up in Hall A4 at 14:00 hrs on Tuesday 15th of August 2017 and be part of this exciting seminar.

A detailed programme will be announced soon.

Contact Erik Hempel for more information:
Erik Hempel Director of Communications
The Nor-Fishing Foundation
+ 47 908 41 124

Visit the AquaNor website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Monday, July 17, 2017

18/07/2017: Lobster expert topic

by Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson, International Aquafeed magazine

The spiny lobster, or alternatively known as the rock lobster or crayfish, are a family of around 60 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia within the class Malacostraca

Although they superficially resemble true lobsters in terms of shape and having a hard carapace and exoskeleton, the groups are not closely related. Spiny lobsters can be identified by their long, thick spiny antennae, by their lack of claws on the first four pairs of walking legs (although the females of most species have a small claw on their fifth pair) and by a specialised larval phase called phyllosoma.

The species typically have a slightly compressed carapace, lacking any lateral ridges. Their antennae lack a scaphocerite, the flattened exopod of the antenna. This is fused to the epistome (a plate between the labrum and the basis of the atenna). The flagellum, at the top of the antenna, is stout, tapering, and very long. The ambulatory legs (pereopods) end in claws (chelae).

The lobsters are found in almost all warm seas, including the Caribbean and the Mediterranean, although they are particularly common in Australasia. They tend to live in crevices of rocks and coral reefs, only occasionally venturing out at night to eat.

Sometimes they migrate in very large groups in long files across the ocean floor, the lines could be up to 50 lobsters long. The spiny lobsters navigate using the smell and taste of natural substances in the water that can change in different areas of the ocean.

It was also recently discovered that spiny lobsters could navigate by detecting the Earth’s magnetic field. They contact each other using their long antennae and deter potential predators also using their antennae by rubbing it against a smooth part of their exoskeleton, creating a loud screech.

This noise is produced by frictional vibrations – sticking and slipping, similar to rubber materials sliding against hard surfaces, while a number of insects use frictional vibration mechanisms to generate sound, this particular acoustic mechanism is unique in the animal kingdom.

Notably, this system does not rely on the hardness of the exoskeleton, meaning that they can continue to produce deterrent noises even in the period following a moult when they are at their most vulnerable.

Read the three page section on Lobsters in International Aquafeed's July edition, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Romer Labs company profile

Founded in Washington, MO, in 1982, over the years Romer Labs became a leading provider of diagnostic solutions for the agricultural, food and feed industry.

Today, Romer Labs offers a broad range of innovative diagnostic solutions covering mycotoxins, food pathogens, food allergens, gluten, GMO, veterinary drug residues, and other food contaminants.

Their portfolio includes:

ELISA test kits - AgraQuant®
Lateral flow devices - AgraStrip® and RapidChek®
Fluorometric tests - FluoroQuant®
Enzymatic tests - EnzymeFast®
Reference materials - Biopure™
Cleanup Columns - MycoSep®, MultiSep®, MycoSpin®, StarLine™
Sampling mills

Furthermore, they operate four accredited, full-service laboratories in Austria, UK, US and Singapore.

Using cutting-edge technology in the fields of chromatography and immunological analysis, their labs offer services for the analysis of mycotoxins, food allergens, meat speciation, VDR and GMO.

Romer Labs is at the forefront of diagnostic technology and they are constantly expanding their product and service portfolio to meet your continuously evolving demands.

The key objective at Romer Labs is to provide scientifically sound, high-quality products and an exceptional service, in line with their mission – Making the World’s Food Safer®.

Would you like to join them in making a mark for a better world?

Visit  the website HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

17/07/2017: GLOBALG.A.P. farm assurers from Bayer

GLOBALG.A.P. now has six new Farm Assurers from Bayer AG

Today GLOBALG.A.P. announced that they have welcomed Beatriz Arrieta from Colombia, Jianping An from China, Juan Carlos González from Guatemala, Arturo Ledesma from Mexico, and Camilo Osorio and José Fabio Morera from Costa Rica to our Farm Assurers Network. 

Image credit: Tristan Schmurr on Flickr
Bayer AG and GLOBALG.A.P. have been collaborating for several years to create awareness of the importance of sustainable solutions in agriculture, ensure the promotion and implementation of good agricultural practices for food security, and help smallholders to achieve certification.

As part of this collaboration, Bayer is promoting the GLOBALG.A.P. scheme as a reference for sustainable agriculture in several of its projects. For this purpose, Bayer has begun certifying its employees as Farm Assurers so they become internal GLOBALG.A.P. experts.

Through personalised training and advice from the internal Farm Assurers, Bayer will be able to guarantee that good agricultural practices are correctly implemented.

 Bayer employees can be presented as experts to guide their partners through the certification process of their farmers. The presence of Farm Assurers at Bayer is not only a guarantee of correct implementation of good agricultural practices, but also an opportunity to spread and advocate the standard to Bayer’s network of partners.

More Bayer employees will be certified in the following months.

Visit the GLOBALG.A.P. website, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news

Sunday, July 16, 2017

17/07/2017: The use of taurine in fishfeeds: With Dr Guillaume Salze, PhD

After many years of research, the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) has now approved the use of taurine in fish feeds. Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues.

It is a major constituent of bile and can be found in the large intestine, accounting for up to 0.1 percent of total human body weight. The chemical compound is named after the Latin Taurus, meaning bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin.

Dr Salze has been a research associate at Auburn University, Alabama since September 2012 having previously been a postdoctoral fellow ay the University of Guelph from July 2009. He has written or been involved in over 20 publications in the Aquaculture industry.

He explained that, “The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO)’s members include both public officials and industry partners. One of their roles is to provide guidelines for animal feeds and establish ingredient definitions. This new announcement is to inform the public that AAFCO amended its definition of crystal taurine – that is the species and limitations within which it can be used as a feed ingredient. The previous definition included cats, dogs, and chicken. The amended definition now includes all species and all life stages of fish.”

What is the relevance of taurine to fish feed?

Dr Salze expands, “Taurine is found ubiquitously in all animals – it is actually one of the predominant amino acid in animal tissues. For a long time, taurine was thought to be a non-essential nutrient – that is a substance that the body can make on its own using other molecules, and therefore is not required in the diet. For over a decade, a number of research groups have looked at the role of taurine in fish. As it turns out, taurine is an essential nutrient for many fish species, so it must be found in their food. If taurine is not present in the food, the fish do not eat or grow well, are more susceptible to diseases, and have increased mortality. So taurine is extremely important in these species.”

Describing how this amendment will benefit both the fish stock and producers, Dr Salze reinforced that it will have a far-reaching impact. He remarked that since taurine is found in all animal tissues, animal-based ingredients typically contain significant levels of taurine (provided it is not lost during ingredient processing).

As a result, fishmeal contains taurine, usually around 0.5-0.7 percent. In contrast, plants do not contain taurine, so plant-based ingredients do not bring any taurine to the feed. As fish nutritionists improve feed formulations to increase plant-based proteins at the expense of animal-based proteins, diets contain lowered levels of taurine. This can be to the extent that for some species like Florida pompano, taurine is actually the first-limiting amino acid in soy-based diets, not methionine!

Dr Salze observed that, “Before the AAFCO amended its taurine definition, taurine had to be supplied through other animal ingredients, such as fishmeal, fish solubles, krill or squid meal, poultry-by product meal, etc. These ingredients are expensive, and increase feed costs. Also, ingredients like fishmeal rely greatly on dedicated wild fisheries. Now that the definition has been officially amended, feed can be formulated with lower levels of animal-based ingredients, because taurine can be included separately. Its inclusion is conducive to the further reduction of expensive animal protein and in turn increasing plant proteins, thereby contributing to reducing feed costs while also reducing pressures on wild fisheries.”

Dr Salze highlighted that the other benefit to the American fish feed industry includes exportation to international markets. He reiterated that before the amendment of AAFCO’s definition, the United States was the only country where taurine was not approved for use in fish feed, whilst the European Union, New Zealand, China, Japan, Canada, Chile (to name a few), all have regulations in place allowing for taurine use.

He concluded that, “The American producers found themselves in a difficult situation because their formulations could meet the taurine requirement through higher levels of fishmeal. In that case, the feeds were not competitive with those from other countries, since they were able to include taurine and reduce fishmeal inclusion. Buyers were aware of the importance of taurine, and were quite skeptical of un-supplemented feeds.”

Alternatively, they would include taurine but then were somewhat at odds with FDA’s regulation and could be barred from accessing international markets altogether. He noted that, “Clearly, this was not a good situation, and now the gap is filled.”

He clarified that, “To be clear, crystal taurine is artificially synthesised through chemical reactions. Producing taurine by extraction and purification from animal tissues is simply not feasible: the efficiencies are low, cost is very high, and there are not enough raw materials available to satisfy global demand. On the other hand, chemical synthesis is relatively simple (compared to that of some other amino acids), inexpensive, and the purity of the resulting product is very high (>98%). Very importantly, the crystal taurine has the exact same chemical structure as the taurine found in animal tissue. There is no difference whatsoever. Whoever ingests it will therefore use it just as the natural taurine would be.”

Read the full article, HERE.

The Aquaculturists
This blog is maintained by The Aquaculturists staff and is supported by the
magazine International Aquafeed which is published by
Perendale Publishers Ltd

For additional daily news from aquaculture around the world: aquaculture-news